Progressive Utilization Theory, propounded by Shrii P R Sarkar by Sudhiindra Gajit
This is the Progressive Utilization Theory, propounded for the happiness and all-round welfare of all. - P R Sarkar (1959)
by Sudhiindra Gajit on Monday, January 10, 2011 at 8:26pm
Many years back, we seldom heard of meditation. Now there are more people meditating, trying to be good, kinder, gentler, compassionate, universal and spiritual.
"Osho Rajneesh once said, "if we can create 10,000 Buddhas -- that is enough to save humanity." One thing is for certain: More is better! So we invite you and everyone you love to join this " lightshift:" For you may just be the "hundredth human" who makes the difference."
The formless Brahma which is the real Guru, in our Baba, our maha-sadvipra,our nucleus not only of this planet, but the entire Cosmological order, is stirring the planet in the direction of this "happiness and all-round welfare of all." In few more years, more changes will happen in our planet. Until finally, the new dawn of the new era will grace us with its positive light of a collective leadership (Margiis or not) of moralists, spiritualists, universalists, neo-humanists and service-minded kind and compassionate sadvipras. I am an incorrigible optimist like P R Sarkar. I may not see it happen but I am very positive that it will happen.
5-1. Varńapradhánatá cakradháráyám.
[In the movement of the social cycle, one class is always dominant.]
Purport: Since no well-knit social order had evolved in the distant past, we may call that age the Shúdra Age; in those days all people survived by their manual labour. Then came the age of clan leaders – the age of the strong and the brave – which we may call the Kśatriya Age. This was followed by the age of intellectuals, which we may call the Vipra Age. Finally came the age of capitalists, the Vaeshya Age.
When the warriors and intellectuals are reduced to the level of manual labourers as a result of exploitation during the Vaeshya Age, shúdra revolution occurs. The shúdras have neither a well-knit social order nor sufficient intellect to govern society. Hence, the post-capitalist administration passes into the hands of those who provide the leadership in the shúdra revolution. These people are brave and courageous, so they begin the second Kśatriya Age.
In this way the Shúdra, Kśatriya, Vipra and Vaeshya Ages move in succession, followed by revolution; then the second cyclic order begins. Thus, the rotation of the samája cakra [social cycle] continues.
5-2. Cakrakendre sadvipráh cakraniyantrakáh.
[Located in the nucleus of the social cycle, sadvipras control the social cycle.]
Purport: Those who are staunch moralists and sincere spiritualists, and who want to put an end to immorality and exploitation by the application of force, are called sadvipras. They do not belong to the periphery of the social cycle because they are to control society remaining firmly established in the nucleus of the social cycle.
The social cycle will no doubt rotate, but if, due to their dominance, the warriors in the Kśatriya Age, the intellectuals in the Vipra Age or the capitalists in the Vaeshya Age degenerate into rapacious exploiters instead of functioning as benevolent administrators, the sacred duty of the sadvipras shall be to protect the righteous and the exploited and subdue the wicked and the exploiters through the application of force.
5-3. Shaktisampátena cakragativardhanaḿ krántih.
[Accelerating the movement of the social cycle by the application of force is called “evolution”.]
Purport: When warriors degenerate into exploiters, sadvipras will establish the Vipra Age by subduing the exploiting warriors. Consequently, the advent of the Vipra Age, which should have occurred through a natural process, is expedited by the application of force. A change of ages in this way may be called kránti [“evolution”]. The difference between evolution and svábhávika parivarttana [natural change] is only this: in evolution the movement of the social cycle is accelerated by the application of force.
5-4. Tiivrashaktisampátena gativardhanaḿ viplavah.
[Accelerating the movement of the social cycle by the application of tremendous force is called “revolution”.]
Purport: When a particular age is replaced by the successive age within a short time, or when the application of tremendous force is necessary to destroy the entrenched hegemony of a particular age, then such change is called viplava [“revolution”].
5-5. Shaktisampátena vipariitadháráyáḿ vikrántih.
[Reversing the movement of the social cycle by the application of force is called “counter-evolution”.]
Purport: If any age reverts to the preceding one by the application of force, such a change is called vikránti [“counter-evolution”]. For instance, the establishment of the Kśatriya Age after the Vipra Age is counter-evolution. This counter-evolution is extremely short-lived. That is, within a very short time this age is again replaced by the next age or the one after it. In other words, if the Kśatriya Age suddenly supersedes the Vipra Age through counter-evolution, then the Kśatriya Age will not last long. Within a short time either the Vipra Age, or as a natural concomitant the Vaeshya Age, will follow.
5-6. Tiivrashaktisampátena vipariitadháráyaḿ prativiplavah.
[Reversing the movement of the social cycle by the application of tremendous force is called “counter-revolution”.]
Purport: Likewise, if within a very short time the social cycle is turned backwards by the application of tremendous force, such a change is called prativiplava [“counter-revolution”]. Counter-revolution is even more short-lived than counter-evolution.
5-7. Púrńávartanena parikrántih.
[A complete rotation of the social cycle is called “peripheric evolution”.]
Purport: One complete rotation of the social cycle, concluding with shúdra revolution, is called parikránti [“peripheric evolution”].
5-8. Vaecitryaḿ prákrtadharmah samánaḿ na bhaviśyati.
[Diversity, not identity, is the law of nature.]
Purport: Diversity, not identity, is the innate characteristic of the Supreme Operative Principle. No two objects in the universe are identical, nor two bodies, two minds, two molecules or two atoms. This diversity is the inherent tendency of the Supreme Operative Principle.
Those who want to make everything equal are sure to fail because they are going against the innate characteristic of the Supreme Operative Principle. All things are equal only in the unmanifest state of the Supreme Operative Principle. Those who think of making all things equal inevitably think of the destruction of everything.
5-9. Yugasya sarvanimnaprayojanaḿ sarveśáḿ vidheyam.
[The minimum requirements of an age should be guaranteed to all.]
Purport: Hararme pitá Gaorii mátá svadeshah bhuvanatrayam. That is, “Supreme Consciousness is my father, the Supreme Operative Principle is my mother, and the three worlds are my homeland.” The entire wealth of the universe is the common patrimony of all, though no two things in the universe are absolutely equal. So the minimum requirements of life should be made available to everybody. In other words, food, clothing, medical treatment, housing and education must be provided to all. The minimum requirements of human beings, however, change according to the change in ages. For instance, for conveyance the minimum requirement may be a bicycle in one age and an aeroplane in another age. The minimum requirements must be provided for all people according to the age in which they live.
5-10. Atiriktaḿ pradátavyaḿ guńánupátena.
[The surplus wealth should be distributed among meritorious people according to the degree of their merit.]
Purport: After meeting the minimum requirements of all in any age, the surplus wealth will have to be distributed among meritorious people according to the degree of their merit. In an age when a bicycle is the minimum requirement for common people, a motor vehicle is necessary for a physician. In recognition of people’s merit, and to provide the meritorious with greater opportunities to serve the society, they have to be provided with motor vehicles. The dictum “Serve according to your capacity and earn according to your necessity” sounds pleasing, but will yield no results in the hard soil of the earth.(1)
5-11. Sarvanimnamánavardhanaḿ samájajiivalakśańam.
[Increasing the minimum standard of living of the people is the indication of the vitality of society.]
Purport: Meritorious people should receive more than the amount of minimum requirements allocated to people in general, and there should be ceaseless efforts to raise the minimum standard of living. For instance, today common people need bicycles whereas meritorious people need motor vehicles, but a proper effort should be made to provide common people with motor vehicles. After everybody has been provided with a motor vehicle, it may be necessary to provide each meritorious person with an aeroplane. After providing every meritorious person with an aeroplane, efforts should also be made to provide every common person with an aeroplane, raising the minimum standard of living. In this way efforts to raise the minimum standard of living will have to go on endlessly, and on this endeavour will depend the mundane development and prosperity of human beings.
5-12. Samájádeshena viná dhanasaiṋcayah akartavyah.(2)
[No individual should be allowed to accumulate any physical wealth without the clear permission or approval of the collective body.]
Purport: The universe is the collective property of all. All people have usufructuary rights but no one has the right to misuse this collective property. If a person acquires and accumulates excessive wealth, he or she directly curtails the happiness and convenience of others in society. Such behaviour is flagrantly antisocial. Therefore, no one should be allowed to accumulate wealth without the permission of society.
5-13. Sthúlasúkśmakárańeśu caramopayogah prakartavyah
[There should be maximum utilization and rational distribution of all mundane, supramundane and spiritual potentialities of the universe.]
Purport: The wealth and resources available in the crude, subtle and causal worlds should be developed for the welfare of all. All resources hidden in the quinquelemental world – solid, liquid, luminous, aerial and ethereal – should be fully utilized, and the endeavour to do this will ensure the maximum development of the universe. People will have to earnestly explore land, sea and space to discover, extract and process the raw materials needed for their requirements.
There should be rational distribution of the accumulated wealth of humanity. In other words, all people must be guaranteed the minimum requirements. In addition, the requirements of meritorious people, and in certain cases those with special needs, will also have to be kept in mind.
[There should be maximum utilization of the physical, metaphysical and spiritual potentialities of unit and collective bodies of human society.]
Purport: Society must ensure the maximum development of the collective body, collective mind and collective spirit. One must not forget that collective welfare lies in individuals and individual welfare lies in collectivity. Without ensuring individual comforts through the proper provision of food, light, air, accommodation and medical treatment, the welfare of the collective body can never be achieved. One will have to promote individual welfare motivated by the spirit of promoting collective welfare.
The development of the collective mind is impossible without developing proper social awareness, encouraging the spirit of social service and awakening knowledge in every individual. So, inspired with the thought of the welfare of the collective mind, one has to promote the well-being of the individual mind.
The absence of spiritual morality and spirituality in individuals will break the backbone of the collectivity. So for the sake of collective welfare one will have to awaken spirituality in individuals. The mere presence of a handful of strong and brave people, a small number of scholars or a few spiritualists does not indicate the progress of the entire society. The potential for infinite physical, mental and spiritual development is inherent in every human being. This potentiality has to be harnessed and brought to fruition.
5-15. Sthúlasúkśma kárańo’payogáh susantulitáh vidheyáh.
[There should be a proper adjustment amongst these physical, metaphysical, mundane, supramundane and spiritual utilizations.]
Purport: While promoting individual and collective welfare, there should be proper adjustment among the physical, mental and spiritual spheres and the crude, subtle and causal worlds. For instance, society has the responsibility to meet the minimum requirements of every individual, but if it arranges food and builds a house for everyone under the impetus of this responsibility, individual initiative is retarded. People will gradually become lethargic. Therefore, society has to make arrangements so that people, in exchange for their labour according to their capacity, can earn the money they require to purchase the minimum requirements. In order to raise the level of the minimum requirements of people, the best policy is to increase their purchasing capacity.
“Proper adjustment” also means that while taking service from a person who is physically, mentally and spiritually developed, society should follow a balanced policy. Society will take physical, intellectual or spiritual service from a person depending upon which of these capacities is conspicuously developed in that person. From those who are sufficiently physically and intellectually developed, society will follow a balanced policy and accordingly take more intellectual service and less physical service, because intellectual power is comparatively subtle and rare. From those who are physically, mentally and spiritually developed, society will take maximum spiritual service, less intellectual service and still less physical service.
As far as social welfare is concerned, those endowed with spiritual power can render the greatest service, followed by those endowed with intellectual power. Those having physical power, though not negligible, cannot do anything by themselves. Whatever they do, they do under the instructions of those endowed with intellectual and spiritual power. Hence the responsibility of controlling the society should not be in the hands of those who are endowed only with physical power, or in the hands of those endowed only with courage, or in the hands of those who are developed only intellectually, or in the hands of those with worldly knowledge alone. Social control will have to be in the hands of those who are spiritually elevated, intelligent and brave all at the same time.
5-16. Deshakálapátraeh upayogáh parivarttante te upayogáh
[The method of utilization should vary in accordance with changes in time, space and person, and the utilization should be of progressive nature.]
Purport: The proper use of any object changes according to changes in time, space and person. Those who cannot understand this simple principle want to cling to the skeletons of the past, and as a result they are rejected by living society. Sentiments based on narrow nationalism, regionalism, ancestral pride, etc., tend to keep people away from this fundamental principle, so they cannot unreservedly accept it as a simple truth. Consequently, after doing indescribable damage to their country, their fellow citizens and themselves, they are compelled to slink away to the backstage.
The method of utilization of every object changes according to time, space and person. This has got to be accepted, and after recognizing this fact, people will have to progressively utilize every object and every idea. For instance, the energy which a powerful person utilizes to operate a huge hammer should be utilized through scientific research to operate more than one hammer at a time, instead of wasting the energy to operate just one hammer. In other words, scientific research, guided by progressive ideas, should extract more and more service from the same human potential. It is not a sign of progress to use outdated technology in an age of developed science.
Society will have to bravely confront different types of obstacles, large or small, that are likely to arise due to the use of various resources and materials created by progressive ideas and developed technology. Through struggle, society will have to move forward towards victory along the path of all-round fulfilment in life.
Pragatishiila upayogatattvamidaḿ sarvajanahitárthaḿ sarvajanasukhárthaḿ pracáritam. [This is the Progressive Utilization Theory, propounded for the happiness and all-round welfare of all.]
(1) On 13 October 1989 the author gave the discourse “Minimum Requirements and Maximum Amenities” (Proutist Economics, 1992), and instructed that the essential ideas contained in this discourse should be added to the present chapter. These ideas were summarized by the author as follows: “(1) Minimum requirements are to be guaranteed to all. (2) Special amenities are for people of special calibre as per the environmental condition of the particular age. (3) Maximum amenities are to be guaranteed to all, even to those who have no special qualities – to common people of common calibre. Maximum amenities are to be guaranteed to all as per environmental conditions. These amenities are for those of ordinary calibre – the common people, the so-called downtrodden humanity. (4) All three above are never-ending processes, and they will go on increasing according to the collective potentialities. This appendix to our philosophy may be small, but it is of progressive nature and progressive character. It has far-reaching implications for the future.” –Eds.
(2) In 1959 the author gave five principles in English known as the “Five Fundamental Principles of Prout”. They were published as part of the discourse “The Cosmic Brotherhood” in Idea and Ideology. Subsequently, in 1961, the author dictated Ánanda Sútram, whose fifth chapter contains, as we see here, sixteen Sanskrit sútras, or aphorisms. Aphorisms 12 to 16 correspond to the Five Fundamental Principles given earlier in English. In this edition of Ánanda Sútram, the author’s original English of each of the Five Fundamental Principles has been printed below the corresponding Sanskrit aphorism. (Though in each case it is the author’s English, it has been presented in square brackets because it was not originally given in the context of this book.) What follows every other Sanskrit aphorism in this chapter and other chapters is a translation of the aphorism rendered by the editors. Thus the bracketed English below the Sanskrit in each of Aphorisms 12-16 is not a translation as such. Note that the word samája in Sútra 5-12 is normally translated “society”; “collective body” appears in the English. Parivarttante in Sútra 5-16 is normally translated “does vary” (present indicative); “should vary” appears in the English. –Eds.
Prout in a Nutshell Part 4 [a compilation]
Proutist Economics [a compilation]
Universal Humanism [a compilation]