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Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Geology and Human Civilization by Shrii P R Sarkar

Geology and Human Civilization by Shrii P R Sarkar

28 December 1987, Anandanagar ( Rarh)



About 8000 million years ago, there was no solid structure in the world and the earth was a glowing gas. The land mass was formed only about 2330 million years ago. [[Eventually]] Gondwanaland was created. At that time, the middle portion of the earth was composed of the liquid factor.



In those days there was no Arabian Sea, no Bay of Bengal and none of the islands presently there, no Indonesia and no Australia. There was no North India, no Tibet and no Himalayas. There was only one contiguous land mass from what is now the eastern portion of Africa, including South India and Malaysia, up to Australia. This land – the oldest land mass of the world – consisted mainly of a long island in an archipelago. What is now Canada and Argentina also existed at that time. This land – which covered what is presently the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Indonesian Archipelago, the Deccan plateau, South East Asia and Oceania – has been named Gondwana land by [[geologists]] because the Gond people of the Austric race lived in the central portion, although this portion was not the oldest part of the land. Even today the descendants of the Gond people still live in the [[Chattisgarhi area]].



Ráŕh – the oldest part of this Gondwanaland that has remained above the sea – was the birth place of human beings. The hills of Anandanagar in Ráŕh are also at least 300 million years old. At that time there was no Himalayas.



Ancient Earthquake



Then at least 30 million years ago, a plutonic earthquake occurred. The land in the portions where the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are now was submerged under the sea and the present North India emerged. In the same earthquake, those parts which were previously hills became islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea after the earthquake. In this way a group of 503 oceanic islands, comprising Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines islands, was also formed. All this, including the emergence of the Himalayas, took place about 30 million years ago. The Himalayas are therefore approximately 30 million years old, but Gondwana land and Ráŕh are much older than that.



The fossils of ocean creatures can be found in the Shivalik ranges. This is proof that at one time the Himalayan ranges were under water. The Indo-Gangetic plains were formed from the alluvial deposits of the Himalayas.



The Sahara desert and the Thar desert of Sind and Rajasthan were previously under the sea, thus their sand dunes are of marine origin. These dunes are proof that these regions were under the oceans at one time.



Geology of Ráŕh ( Bihar,Bengal,Odissa and portions of East India)



There are five types of rock – hard rock, metallic rock, metamorphosed rock, igneous rock and sedimentary rock. The old hard rock of that time has now become dead rock. Examples of this rock are found around Ánanda Nagar and Marapahari. Mara means “dead” and Pahari means “hill,” so Marapahari means dead hill. Marapahari is now colloquially called Marafari and officially called Bokaro Steel City. How can dead rock be identified? If one takes dead rock in the hand and crushes it, it will become dust.



There are three types of volcanic eruptions – volcanic, plutonic and tertiary. In a volcanic earthquake, a great deal of old, hard rock comes to the surface. Whatever metal we find is associated with this old hard rock. Wherever this old hard rock is found, petroleum will not be found. Petroleum and mineral oil can only be found where there is sedimentary rock, such as in the Sargasso Sea. In the past, the rivers which merged into the Sargasso Sea formed a trough in the sea bed due to the pressure of the opposing currents. In this trough, the dead bodies of many large animals collected, and over the course of time they decomposed to form mineral oil.



In Bankura and Purulia, we find iron, gold, tungsten, manganese and mercuric sulphide in old hard rock. In western Ráŕh there is less chance of finding petroleum.



Petroleum can also be recovered from certain types of river valleys. Where the river bed is broad there is a chance of finding petroleum. Up to Durgapur the river-bed of the Damodar river is not so broad, so petroleum will not be found. Dam means “energy” and udar means “belly;” thus the Damodar river mean “the river which is carrying energy in its belly.” From Golsi between Burdwan and Durgapur, and down river to the Bay of Bengal, petroleum can be found in Hooghly, 24 Parganas, Nadia and Midnapur. Although the soil of the eastern portion of Burdwan is not as old as that of western Ráŕh, petroleum can be found there. Petroleum can also be found in Khulna and Barisal in Bangladesh and in some portions of Tripura. Offshore, off Midnapur district in Contai subdivision, petroleum can also be found. In geological and archaeological terms, western Ráŕh is similar to Kaoshal and eastern Ráŕh is similar to Utkal. (Kaoshal and Utkal are both parts of Orissa.) Thus, in geo-historical terms, Ráŕh is a land with a great deal of antiquity.



The Beginning of Human Civilization



According to geology, there have been several ages on this planet. These ages include the Pleistocene, Pliocene, Miocene, Oligocene, Eocene, Paleocene, Cretaceous, etc. The Pleistocene age is going on now. Each age has its distinctive identity, flora and fauna and leaves a mark. There have also been geological ages on other planets and stars. With the passage of time, physical changes take place according to the changes in time, space and person, and to adjust with these changes, psychic metamorphoses takes place. According to the development of the psychic structures of human beings, changes occur in the realm of thought and ideas. More development takes place in the psychic sphere than in the physical sphere, and physical structures undergo metamorphoses to adjust with psychic development. There is a marked difference between the male and the female body with regard to the degree of complexity.



On this earth a tremendous psychic change took place 1,000,000 years ago. While human beings evolved about one million years ago, the present humans originated only 100,000 years ago, and a long time passed before they became civilized.



Humanity’s journey on the path of civilization started only 15,000 years ago. This can be inferred from the fact that human beings began evolving language about this time. The oldest part of the Vedas belong to this period. There is a close similarity between the language used in the oldest part of the Vedas and the language of the people living 15,000 years ago. The Vedic civilization is the oldest civilization in the world.



A full-fledged civilization, with the four symbols of advance ment – agriculture, the wheel, dress and script – started only about 7000 years ago. Human beings had grasped the rudimentals of these four inventions by this time. Pictorial letters were in vented less than 7000 years ago, and philosophy was discovered about 4000 years ago. The first philosopher was Maharśi Kapil, who will be remembered and respected for all time.



Cardinal human principles change little from age to age, but social values may change dramatically to keep pace with the dominant social psychology.



The Four Races



The four major races are the Austrics, Aryans, Mongolians and Negroids. The differences among these races and sub-races can be easily discerned by two factors: the skull index and the nose index. The skull index is the distance from nose point to nose point around the skull, touching the hollow of the ears; and the nose index is the distance between the base of the nose and the tip of the nose. For example, the Aryans have a small nose index and a big skull index. Negroids have a big nose index, an ordinary skull index and curly hair. Their curly hair is due to a slightly larger than normal percentage of mercury in the fat at the root of the hair.



1) Austrics. The Austrics were the original inhabitants of Gondwana land. They were tribals known as Gonds – tall, and of black complexion. They were divided into two groups – the Raj gonds or leaders and the Dhruva gonds or ordinary gonds. The derivation of the word “Austric” is astra plus ikon, meaning those who carried weapons (astra). The names Australia and Austria come from the word Austric. The Austrics have medium-sized bodies, pointed noses and mud-black coloured skins.



2) Aryans. The Aryan or Caucasian race is comprised of three distinct sub-races: the Nordics, Alpines and Mediterraneans. The Nordics live near the North Pole. Their bodies are big, their skin is reddish white, their eyes are brown-coloured like those of cats and their hair is golden. They inhabit Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Finland and northern Russia. The Alpines have medium-sized bodies, blue hair, blue eyes and milky white skin colour. They inhabit Germany, France, Western Europe and parts of Asia. The Mediterraneans have black hair and black eyes. They inhabit South Caucasia, Spain, Portugal and Italy. Jammu people are from the Mediterranean stock.



3) Mongolians. The Mongolians have five district sub-races: Nipponese (Japanese), Chinese, Malay, Indo-Burmese and Indo-Tibetans. The Nipponese have big faces, flat noses and big bodies. The Chinese have flat noses and slanting eyes. They are short in stature with muscular bodies. Like all Mongolian sub-races, their skin is a yellowish colour and they have little hair on their bodies. The Malays, who inhabit Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, have thin figures, small bodies and flat noses. The Filipinos have small faces. The Indonesian, Thai and Malay languages are of Saḿskrta origin. The Indo-Burmese people who have flat noses and comparatively big bodies, inhabit an area covering Tripura, Manipur, Mithai, Mizoram, Burma, Thailand and Assam. The Indo-Tibetan people inhabit an area which includes Tibet, Laddakh, Kinnaur, Nepal, Garo, Tharu, Gurung, Newari, Sherpa, Bhutia, Lepcha, Khasia and North Bengal. Their figures are like the Aryans. They have flat noses, are good looking and their language is a mixture of Saḿskrta and Tibetan. They frequently use nasal sounds when speaking, and their script is Tangada. In Indo-Tibetan phonetics, the sound “Ra” is sparsely used. Among the Indo-Tibetans, the males have thin beards and mustaches and the females have flat breasts. The girls are very laborious: they can do physical work continuously for long peri ods. Their lymphatic glands are well-developed, and they have a lot of stamina which enables them to ascend and descend hilly tracts.



4) Negroids. The Negroids have three distinct sub-races: the general Negroids, who are five and half to six feet tall, the Zulus, who are six feet or more in height, and the Pygmies, who are less than five feet tall. Steps should be taken to protect the Zulus and the Pygmies.



Blended Races



There has been much blending and mixing amongst the people of the different races and sub-races. Some examples of blended races in India include the Bengalees, who are a mixture of the Austric, Mongolian and Negroid races, the South Indian Austrico-Negroids or Dravidians, and the people of Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh. Those who have fair complexions amongst the Bengalees have Aryan blood. In Ráŕh there is less Mongolian blood, and in the north east there is more Mongolian blood. Although the Bengalees are of Austrico-Mongolian-Negroid stock, the Mongolian influence diminishes as one moves south-west, and increases to the north east. Although the people of Mithila are of Austrico-Mongolo-Negroid origin, their structure becomes broad where there is an excessive influence of the Mongolian race. In Bengal the body size becomes smaller as we move towards the east, but towards the west the body size increases and the people are taller. If an imaginary line is drawn connecting Arambagh, Burdwan, Kishanganj and Angara, it will be found that people living along this line are taller in size. Beyond the River Sone, the body size again be comes bigger and the size of the cattle is also larger. In Gaya and Aurangabad people are smaller compared to the people of Bhojpur who are bigger in size. The cattle of this region also follow the same pattern: the local Zebus of this region are known as Pattni-gai (a type of cow) and are of ordinary size. They are taller than Indian Zebus but shorter than western cows.



Another blended race is located in South India. South Indian Brahmins have fair complexions as they originally came from the north. The people of Madras, who are dark in colour, are part of the Austrico-Negroid sub-race. South Indian Brahmins are called Ayyars and Ayangars; Ayyars are Shaevas and Ayangars are Vaeśńavas.



A third example of racial blending is amongst the people of Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh. They are a mixed race of the Mediterranean sub-race and the Austric race. Their colour is blackish. Once Sirmaur covered an area from Kumaun to Simla. The Rajputs migrated there (to Sind) from Rajasthan during the reign of Aurangzeb.



In Kinnaur the skin colour of the people is yellowish or brown and their noses are flat; the people are as attractive as an gels. The derivation of the word Kinnaur is kin plus narsh meaning, “Are they human or angels?” As the people were very attractive, the place where they settled was called Kinnaur. Similarly, the land of Tibet is known as Kim Puruśa Varśa. There the males have scant facial hair. They also wear pigtails, so it is difficult to distinguish between males and females.



India has two groups of Mediterranean Caucasians, the Cytheo-Mediterraneans or the Gujuratis who have triangular faces and the pro-Cytheo-Mediterraneans or the Marathiis. They descended from the Shakas, Huns, Kushanas and Yucins. They came in the second phase of the Buddhist era during Kaniśka.



The Semitic Race



The Semitic race is an important blended race. The Semitic race is a blending of Central Mongolians, Alpines, Mediterraneans and Negroids. This blending took place 15,000 years ago and is known as the Semitic race of today. This race is characterized by its perserverence, intellectual orientation and high degree of tenacity. Their original abode was the central and southern portions of West Asia (now commonly known as the Middle East), excluding Persia.



The original Semitic tongue was bifurcated into northern and southern languages about 1500 years ago. The metamorphosed southern group is Arabic and the metamorphosed form of the northern group is Hebrew. People of the northern group have fair complexions but they are a bit less fair than the Mediterraneans, and the people of the southern group have a darkish brown tinge in their complexions. Both the old Hebrew and Arabic languages are written from right to left, and both are of course related as is obvious by the following word comparison:



Old Hebrew

Arabic

Joseph

Yusef

Jacob

Yacub

Solomon

Sulaiman

Adam

Ádam

Jesus

Iśa

Moses

Musa

Socrates

Sukrát

Mary

Miriam

Alpha

Alif

Alexandrina

Sikandria

Palestine

Filistan



Both the Hebrew and Arabic sub-races follow the system of circumcision, which is an ancient practice of the Semitic people irrespective of caste, creed or nationality. In ancient times both the sub-races had a network of lanes branching from the main road of the town, and the people were fond of restaurants or eating houses. Islam, Judaism and Christianity are all Semitic religions and have fixed days of worship – Friday, Saturday and Sunday respectively. In Saḿskrta, Semitic is called “samiti.”



Language



In Tibetan, Ladakhi, Kinnauri and Pahari-Punjabi, the verb is used less and the gerund or verbal adjective is used more. For example, “Ram is going,” or, “Ram is in a moving stage” (Ram chaludasa). In Saḿskrta and the language spoken by the Indo-Tibetans, nasal sounds (anusvara) are common. Bengali letters and tadbhava letters are very similar. There are Indo-Tibetan influences on the Bengali language.



Kash means “to oppress.” Those who give pain, who oppress, are kash. Kash Rajputs oppressed the indigenous population. In Mundari, dikka also means to oppress or give pain. So outsiders are called Dikku. Kash plus meru equals Kashmir. From Kashmir carpenters went to Himachal. So they are called kashmeru (or suradhar in Bengali). The word Arya has come from the root verb “R” plus suffix “yat” meaning “double march” or “moving speedily.”



Shiva was Indo-Tibetan. He had three wives – Parvati, Ganga and Kali. Gauri Parvati was Aryan and had a reddish white complexion (Gaur varna), Ganga was Mongolian and had a pale complexion, and Kali was Dravidian. Shiva’s mode of transportation was the yak.



Polyandry is prevalent in Kinnaur, Laddakh and Tibet. The Drupad Kingdom was in Kinnaur or Tibet: Draupadi, the wife of the five Pandavas, came from here. Bengalees partially follow the matrilineal system, and in Bengal more importance is given to women compared with other parts of India.



About 900,000 to one million years ago, the top of the Dimdiha Hill, near Anandanagar, was blown off by a volcanic eruption. The debris fell within a radius of about two miles, killing all of the people and animals living there. Due to the abrupt change in temperature, they were fossilized. Uneducated people called this explosion the work of the goddess Candi. This kind of [[volcanic]] eruption is called “jvala-mukhi” in Saḿskrta.



Spiritual practice (sádhaná) was first started by the Mediterranean Caucasians and the Indo-Tibetans.(1) Later on, it was learnt by the Mongolians and the Alpine Caucasians, and still later by the [[Nordic Caucasians]]. Ananda Marga was the first to teach sádháná amongst the Negroids. The Rg Veda cult was started by the Aryans, but the practice of sádháná originated in India.



The unity in diversity amongst all the races and sub-races of the human society is the pinnacled entity, Parama Puruśa. Parama Puruśa is the Absolute, the Supreme, the nonattributional Entity of all the attributional entities, the Father of all fathers.



Footnotes



(1) The author’s Ráŕh: The Cradle of Civilization adds to this list of early practitioners of sádhaná, saying: “The people of Ráŕh are a mixture mainly of two races, Austric and Negroid. In eastern Ráŕh there is also some Mongolian influence” and “Lord Sadáshiva… was born. The people of Ráŕh came in touch with His eternal gospel and infallible guidance… Thus Ráŕh became the cradle of civilization.” Elsewhere the author has described Lord Shiva as the first propounder of systematic sádhaná. –Trans.



Shrii P R Sarkar

28 December 1987, Anandanagar ( Rarh)

A Few Problems Solved Part 9

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