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Sunday, March 6, 2016

Advait: Pancha Brahma Upanishad

Advait: Pancha Brahma Upanishad: Pancha Brahma Upanishad (Part of the Krishna Yajur Veda) Introduction: The Pancha Brahma Upanishad deals with the five fold aspect o...





Pancha Brahma Upanishad

(Part of the Krishna Yajur Veda)



Introduction:



The Pancha Brahma Upanishad deals with the five fold aspect of Pancha Brahmas (Siva). The Upanishad explains the significance of the five divinities, namely Sathyojatha, Aghora, Vamadeva, Thathpurusha and Ishana, their respective attributes, functions and colors. The five fold aspect of Brahman or Siva is represented by the five syllables hidden in the Panchakshari mantra, "Na-Ma-Si-Va-Ya." The Upanishad also reveals the fact that every form in the universe contains the five fold aspect of Brahman and that Lord Siva exists in the hearts of all beings.



The Upanishad:



Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !



Om Shanti ! Shanti ! Shanti !



Next Paippalada addressed (Mahadeva) ‘What is That which came to exist at first’?



2. (He replied). Sadyojata. ‘What is that O Lord’, ? ‘Aghora’. What is that, O Lord? ‘Vamadeva’. What are those, O Lord? ‘Tatpurusha.’ What are these, O Lord? ‘Isana, the instructor of all the Vidyas.’



3. He is the Isana (ruler) of the past and the future and of all the gods.



4. All the Secrets, whatever they have with colors, divisions and energies, the Lord Mahesa gave out to him (Paippalada).



5. Adoration to Mahadeva, Maharudra.



6. O Sakala, hear from me, whatever are the secrets of secrets in the world (a teacher says to his pupil).



7. Sadyojata, which bestows all the desired objects, represents Earth, Pusha (the sun), Lakshmi, Brahma, Trivritsvara (sound), Rig Veda, Garhapatya fire, the mantras which have seven notes, yellow color, and Kriyasakti.



8. Aghora, which destroys all the multitude of sins, which pacifies evils, and which bestows all prosperities, represents water, the moon, Gauri, Yajurveda, cloud color, Sandrasvara, Dakshinagni, the mantras with fifty syllables, protection and Ichchasakti.



9. Vamadeva, which gives the great wisdom, represents Agni, Vidyakala, Samaveda, Svara with eight notes, Dhirasvara (majestic sound), Ahavantya fire, knowledge and dissolution energies, and white color mixed with darkness. He, whose brightness is equal to that of crores of suns, possesses full consciousness and is the leader of the three states (of consciousness). He distributes the fruits of all actions to men, who are in the three states of consciousness, and also bestows on them all the prosperities. He, whose mantra is Eight syllabled one, resides in the center of eight-petalled lotus (of the heart).



10. Tatpurusha is with eight letters (Aa, Ka, Cha, Ta, Tha, Pa, Ya, Sa) and is in the eight petal lotus and is normally surrounded by air, the five fires, who is the leader of the mantra energies, and who has the fifty letters and their notes, and Atharvaveda. He is the head of crores of the Ganas (Elements) and whose body is the whole universe. His color is Red-which gives the desired objects. He is the panacea for all kinds of diseases, the cause of the creation, preservation and destruction &c., and the possessor of all the Saktis. He is above the three states of consciousness, the fourth (Turiya), and existence, consciousness and bliss himself, He is worshipped by Brahma, Vishnu and others, and the Supreme Father of all.

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11. Isana should be known as the Supreme Ruler and the witness of the intelligence. He is the Ether unmanifested, and to be worshipped by the ‘Omkarasvara’. He is all the Devas, calm, and above the calmness, and beyond the ‘Svara’ (notes). He is the presiding deity of the letters ‘A’ and other Svaras, and whose body is the Ether itself. He is the cause of the five functions (creation &c.) in the great form of the five Brahmans (Sadyojata &c.). He remains (at the time of dissolution) involving the five Brahmans in himself, and also remains after absorbing all the manifestations of his own maya in himself. He shines by his own glory transcending the five Brahmans. He shines in himself in the past, present and future depending on none else.



12. All the Devas, do not realize him, bewildered by the maya of Sambhu, the Mahadeva, the Guru of the universe and the Cause of all the causes.



13. His form will not stand before any. He is the highest of the highest, the support of the universe, the person, by whom the universe is manifested and in whom it is involved. He is the Supreme Brahman, calm, he is the Supreme abode and I am that Brahman itself.



14. One should understand the five Supreme Brahmans, Sadyojata and others; whatever we see and hear all are the five Brahmans. These five are, as it were, the division of one Brahman. Thus understanding the one as five he reaches Isana (the fifth). The learned should absorb all, which are in the form of the five Brahmans, in his self and realize that ‘I am they’, and he reaches Brahman, becoming immortal. He who knows thus, becomes freed from the bondage; there is no doubt in this.



15. Sambhu is in the form of the five-syllabled mantra (Panchakshara). He is the Supreme Brahman. Knowing the Panchakshara as consisting from the letter ‘Na’ to ‘Ya’, one should repeat the mantra.



16. One should realize the universe as Panchakshara in the nature of the five Brahmans.



17. He, who studies this vidya of the five Brahmans with devotion, attaining the state of the five Brahmans, shines himself in five forms.



18. Thus Mahadeva, addressing Galava, the great Soul, blessing him and disappeared there.



19. By hearing which alone, the unheard things become heard, the unthought, O Sakala, and the unknown is known. Just as by knowing one lump of earth alone, O Gautama, all the Earth is known as the effect (pot &c.) is not separate from the cause (Mother Earth); just as by knowing one jewel alone, all other metals one known; and just as by knowing one nail parer only, all other iron made things are known, as they are not in nature different from their cause, so is the effect (the universe) not separate from its cause (Isvara). The effect becomes always eternal in the form of its cause. The saying as different is indeed false. The cause is only one, and he is not separate (from the effects) nor with both forms (separateness and non-separateness). The idea of separateness is false, as it is impossible to find out the cause of difference. Therefore the cause is only one, the eternal and second less. This second less cause is, surely the Pure Consciousness itself.



20. In this city of Brahman (Body) there is, O Sage, a small lotus like house. In the center of it, there is a subtle ether. He is Siva, Sat, Chit, and Ananda. He should be sought after by those desirous of Salvation. As He is residing in the heart as the witness of all, without differences, Siva is called ‘Hridaya’ (resider in the heart), the liberator from the Samsara.



It shines at the beginning, middle and end without any causative reason. All those devas who are all under stupor by the illusion of Maheswara would not understand properly that Mahadeva who is the teacher of the universe, is the cause of all causes. His shape does not appear before the eye. This world is shining because of that Parathpara Purusha in whom the world exists. It merges in him. That Ishana aspect is the Para Brahman which is the upper boundary of peace. The knowledge that the Para Brhaman is oneself and the rise of Sathyo Jatam (birth of truth) is Para Brahman. Whichever is seen or heard is the soul of Para Brahman.



The existence in five shapes is called Brahma Karya (activity). After understanding Brahma Karya, Ishana is appreciated. After putting the fact all that is originating from Para Brahman in ones soul, the wise man experiences and understands that "It is me" and becomes Brahman as well as deathless. There is no doubt that the one who understands this Brahman becomes freed (emancipated).



One should chant the Panchakshara Mantra which is from Na to Ya (Namasivaya) and which is of the shape of five letters and is Lord Shiva's body. After understanding the philosophy of the soul of Pancha Brahma, One should understand that every form is the form of those five. One who studies this knowledge of the soul of the Pancha Brahma would shine himself as Pancha Brahma. This Upanishad tells that Lord Shiva, who grants salvation to one, from this day- to-day life of the world, exists as witness without differentiation in the heart of all beings and is called Hrudayam (That which exists within).



Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !



The Panchabrahma Veda Mantra



One of the greatest and most sacred of all mantras, the Pañchabrahma Mantrāṇī, is found in the Kṛshṇa Yajurveda, Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.17-21. Here its five verses are cited in reverse order (21 to 17), just as they are chanted during puja. This is a lucid translation by Sabharathnam Sivacharyar, based on the 12th-century translation by Ugrajyoti Sivacharyar in his priestly manual Vedartha Nirnaya Manjari, giving the enhanced meaning of the mantras in the context of the Saiva Agamas.



ईशानस्सर्वविद्यानां ईश्वरस्सर्वभूतानां ब्रह्मािधपतिर्ब्रह्मणोऽधिपतिर्ब्रह्माशिवो मे अस्तु सदाशिवोम्।

īśānassarva vidyānām īśvaras sarva bhūtānām brahmādhipatir brahmaṇo’dhipatir brahmā śivo me astu sadāśivom



Lord Ishana—the Supreme Lord and Revealer of all knowledge and spiritual disciplines, the nourisher and controller of all living beings, the Directing Lord of Sadasiva, He who is the guiding and directing authority for the eight Vidyeshvaras, who directs Brahma, Vishnu and others—may He present Himself in this Sivalinga. By such benign presence, let there occur absolute purity and auspiciousness in me. Om.



तत्पुरुषाय विद्महे महादेवाय धीमहि तन्नो रुद्रः प्रचोदयात्।



tatpurushāya vidmahe mahādevāya dhīmahi tanno rudraḥ prachodayāt



As guided by my guru, I realize the form of Siva known as Tatpurusha. I meditate with pure mind and refined intellect on the Great Illuminator. Let Tatpurusha—who cuts asunder the limiting bonds of the souls and by this act comes to be known as Rudra—guide, enlighten and strengthen my organs of knowledge and action and my internal faculties.



अघोरेभ्योथघोरेभ्यो घोरघोरतरेभ्यः सर्वेभ्यस्सर्व सर्वेभ्यो नमस्तेऽस्तु रुद्ररूपेभ्यः।

aghorebhyotha ghorebhyo ghora ghoretarebhyas sarvebhyas sarvasarvebhyo namaste astu rudrarūpebhyaḥ

Salutations to Lord Siva who manifests Himself in countless benign forms, in frightful and terrifying forms, and to all those countless forms of Rudra (eulogized in the Sri Rudram hymn). Salutations to all such manifestations of Lord Siva.



वामदेवाय नमो ज्येष्ठाय नमः श्रेष्ठायनमो रुद्राय नमः कालायनमः कलविकरणाय नमो बलविकरणाय नमो बलाय नमो बलप्रमथनाय नमस्सर्वभूतदमनाय नमो मनोन्मनाय नमः।

vāmadevāya namo jyeshṭhāya namaḥ śreshṭhāya namo rudrāya namaḥ kālāya namaḥ kalavikaraṇāya namo balavikaraṇāya namo balāya namo balapramathanāya namas sarvabhūta damanāya namo manonmanāya namaḥ



Salutations to the luminous Lord who sportively creates everything. Salutations to the One who is eternally the Eldest, transcending the great cycles of time. Salutations to the One whose lordship excels all other Gods. Salutations to the One who wards off the sufferings of all living beings. Salutations to the One who is Eternal Time. Salutations to the One who sets into operation the divisions of time and maintains the worlds in an orderly way. Salutations to the One who, being the source of strength, strengthens the auspicious forces. Salutations to the One who, being the wielder of strength, withdraws the strength of inauspicious forces and extirpates them. Salutations to the One who guides all souls to ultimately reach Him.



सद्योजातं प्रपद्यामि सद्योजाताय वै नमो नमः। भवे भवेनातिभवे भवस्वमां भवोद्भवायनमः।।



sadyojātaṁ prapadyāmi sadyojātāya vai namo namaḥ bhave bhavenātibhave bhavasva māṁ bhavodbhavāya namaḥ



I submit my mind, speech and body totally and repeatedly to Lord Sadyojata, who manifests Himself and instantaneously creates bodies and worlds, who appears to devotees in the forms contemplated by them and yet transcends such forms assumed by Him and who has a retinue of Deities formed of millions of mantras. May He make my form as of His own form.



Here ends the Pancha Brahma Upanishad, as contained in the Krishna Yajur Veda

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